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How to Write a Capstone Paper

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❶A model presents policies and procedures designed to address these elements.

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But what is a capstone project in college? Basically, these assignments are written at the end of a person's study period, and they are characterized by a large scale of investigation, research, data, theoretical background, discussion, etc. College or university professors evaluate such assignments from all possible angles to assess how a particular student progressed since his or her 1st year of study. For example, a regular project consists of:. The list may differ as various courses, departments, and even supervisors require different things from their students.

For instance, DNP capstone projects doctor of nursing practice , alongside with MBA capstone projects, are considered the most difficult final years assignments, as they involve virtually everything that a person learned through his college or university education.

One of the most complex things about these tasks is that choosing a topic is not enough to start writing. Such tasks should be evaluated carefully in order not to make any fatal mistakes once you have already started conducting your research or even tailoring the first draft. Certainly, this is made because of various reasons, such as lack of time, knowledge, skills, or a mere desire to compile this stuff individually, and many of such students refuse from taking this project or ask for assistance elsewhere.

However, here are several writing tips that may convince otherwise and be rather handy even at the stage of preparation. Seniors are often free to consider an option of writing a capstone project or not. However, in different states, schools require from their students to complete at least one project, while others may ask to complete two or three.

Such projects may take different forms from an ordinary PowerPoint presentation but at the same time each presentation cannot be ordinary in its pure sense as it bears a part of the soul of its creator to a truly unique creation. The best of this volunteer assignment is that you may become a part of the production and business process and do an internship with a certain company that may become interested in the product you create.

Nonetheless, whether it is a capstone research or a capstone project for high school, as a student, you should know what to do to succeed. But, before starting the completion, you should know how to make a winning proposal to successfully finalize the project. The most important part of the proposal, as well as for the whole task itself, is choosing the topic as it defines the line of research. The second thing you will need while making preparations for the Capstone is a clear plan where you will be able to describe every stage of the assignment from pre-research and interviewing people if any to the public presentation.

Remember that writing a capstone project paper is the ticket to your plan execution, to a possibility to give a taste of your quality to school or college mates. Give as many details as possible, be precise as to what kind of message you are trying to send to the public.

Do your best to explain to the audience why a topic chosen by you is so important, explain the problem, and do not forget to tell what positive or negative results the resolution of this problem or issue may have, what changes it may bring to the society, local community, or your university in general. Be sure to mention the way of implementation of results or solutions obtained and assess your ways of implementation objectively.

Finally, if you are relatively free with choosing a topic, be sure to dedicate enough time to search, as capstone project topics are numerous and may include community service, public healthcare management, improvement of nursing practices at communal hospitals, etc. The list is endless and depends on your specialization and future degree. Nevertheless, an assessment committee doesn't like topics that are too narrow or too broad, so try to strike a happy medium.

The final version of such an assignment should be well-structured, neat and free of plagiarism and possible grammar mistakes since your final grade may be lowered because of mistakes, or your whole graduation may be jeopardized because of plagiarism; so make sure to double-check whether you quoted all the sources properly. Additionally, it is highly recommended to double-check the whole formatting as different styles have different requirements, and you may be able to find some DNP capstone project examples, as well as MBA capstone project examples, to trace your faults in terms of formatting and correct them when you still have some time left.

As it was mentioned, these assignments are challenging, especially for the seniors who look for a way to show their worth in front of schoolmates and college representatives. The audience for this paper is owners of commercial print shops that have experienced the reduction in print volume. This annotated bibliography provides potential strategies to overcome the reduced demand in the printing industry.

Communication is considered a key factor for effective project management and project success. This literature review examines information published between and , about the communication challenges faced by project managers, when leading virtual teams.

Results reveal three types of collaboration tools information management, conferencing, and project management that can be used to address three larger kinds of typical communication challenges. Research indicates that establishing trust and addressing information overload are two additional key elements. This study presents six communication tactics that describe innovation advocacy leadership. It examines differences in communication abilities and behaviors represented by divergent processes, which develop new directions necessary to support innovative ideas, and convergent processes which represent the dominant organizational view necessary to support formal strategic planning Pappas, Tactics provide advocates with a procedural bridge to the new ideas they propose and include defining innovation context, developing dynamic networks, channeling opportunities, and framing perceptions.

In spite of abundant information about work place skill requirements and effective teaching techniques, many educational institutions are not using the techniques and tools that would enhance initial and continuing learner preparation.

This project documents existing learning theory and work place requirement studies; evaluates post-secondary institutions; and describes sample educational efforts based on adult learning and workplace needs. Computer based training CBT can fail to deliver real business value if implemented on the basis of assumptions alone O'Connor, A training needs assessment can determine if CBT will address needs prior to implementation.

Using content analysis, this study, structured in four steps, provides a guide to conducting a CBT needs assessment. CBT benefits and drawbacks are included. Computer Instruction and Andragogy: Each year , people become senior citizens U. As families disperse geographically, there is a need for older adults to learn to use technology as a communication tool to remain connected to family. This study examines age-related barriers that hinder learning and identifies strategies and design considerations best suited to the elderly.

Guidelines, grounded in andragogy Knowles, in Bean, are provided to assist instructors who teach the elderly in face-to-face environments. Computers in the Schools: While installation of modern computer technology in American public schools has been taking place at an accelerated rate, there has been increasing concern that teachers are ill prepared to deal with this technology.

Based on a survey of computer use in Junction City, Oregon, this project examines how K teachers are using computers as part of their instructional program. Focus is on how and how much computers are used as an instructional tool in the classroom and in labs. Findings from the survey are compared with data collected from similar studies. Computer-Mediated Communication in the Workplace: Problems and Solutions As workplace computer-mediated communication CMC rises, negative behaviors associated with toxic disinhibition effect TDE occur Suler, Behaviors include bullying and flaming, which affect workplace productivity, and can lead to claims of hostile work environments.

Laws shifting in favor of victims require managers and human resource staff to face these challenges. Potential solutions include policies designed to prevent the behaviors and CMC technologies such as videoconferencing and webcams to increase social presence and decrease dehumanization. Computer Training for Nurses: Computer training for nurses is an essential requirement for the conversion in health care to computerbased patient records.

Training is expensive, with an estimated transfer rate of less than 20 percent to the work place. Techniques to optimize transfer of training emerged from a review of selected references published from to Results are presented as a list of techniques to facilitate transfer of training to be considered during the development of training programs. Computer Viruses, Strategies for Managing This study considers the problem of computer viruses from a management perspective.

The research methods include a review of published literature and an analysis of survey data. All survey data used in this study were gathered between and Digital technology allows unprecedented access to information Armstrong, This study examines selected literature published between and to provide communications professionals working in the United States with a point guide to help frame, build, and implement a copyright compliance policy related to the use of digital graphic elements including photos, maps, and pictographs.

Focus is on the use of a policy to reduce financial liability as part of a larger risk management program. A Current Interpretation Six pre-selected legal concepts related to copyright law copyright infringement, fair use, intermediate copy, library exception, property, and transformative use are examined in relation to massive book digitization projects, such as the Google Book Search Jeweler, Content analysis is applied to literature, published between December to present, in order to develop interpretive narratives for each concept.

These concepts present a "snapshot-in-time" that covers current discussion for people tracking topics of interest. A Review of Literature A deeper understanding of EPSS website construction has the potential to benefit web developers and the enterprise through improved EPSS practice, and may add consistency to instructional design. The target audience is corporate web authors. Selected literature, published from —, examines the following areas: A positive correlation was found, however, in two smaller sub segments, Districts C and D.

Advances in technology coupled with lower costs have significantly increased the demand for data networking communication investments for state governments. This project reviews the use of cost allocation methodologies currently found in state government data communication networks. Creating, managing, and delivering web content is increasingly important to companies as they realize that competitive advantage is connected to effective content management.

This study examines selected web content management processes. Data for this study was collected from literature published between and Results are presented in the form of a descriptive table based on a taxonomy provided by Costa , to be used by decision makers responsible for implementation of content management solutions. Organizations must understand the differences that exist between traditional software development principles and agile principles. Based on an analysis of the literature published between and , this study examines nine distinct organizational cultural factors that require change, including management style, communication, development team practices, knowledge management, and customer interactions.

Customer relationship management CRM requires a customer-centric focus that aligns business strategies with customer needs to generate profit through maximizing customer lifetime value. Many business managers implement CRM technology without addressing the customer-centric strategic orientation that must be present for CRM to be successful.

This Review of the Literature examines 22 articles published between and that emphasize customer-centric business strategy as a foundation for CRM and a facilitator for customer loyalty. The number of complaints and negative feedback delivered via social media continue to increase, and marketing, public relations, and customer service leaders need to develop comprehensive, integrated corporate plans to successfully monitor and respond to these customer issues.

This annotated bibliography presents selected literature on understanding customer social media usage, its impacts on customer complaint interactions, and the best practices for successfully addressing customer complaints in social media. Customer Connection via the Internet: Despite the mass media coverage on the growth of the Internet, a good understanding is lacking as to what an organization can and should do once the connection is made.

This project explored the utilization of the Internet for creating competitive advantage within the Merix sales and marketing functions.

Most nonprofits accumulate and store sensitive and vital business information digitally and are becoming increasingly reliant on technology; they are therefore more at risk for cyberattacks Goldernberg, This annotated bibliography presents literature about common cybersecurity vulnerabilities, stakeholders, and training.

As the number of mobile information systems ISs increases, so does the amount of data-at-rest DAR susceptible to attacks. Literature published from to is examined to describe a 13 selected standards, regulations, and policies requiring DAR security solutions; and b currently available DAR security solutions of two types: Focus is on affordability and interoperability. Solutions are presented as a guide to help curb loss of DAR and identity theft.

Databases are being compromised today at an alarming rate Britt, This content analysis study provides database administrators and security managers with an inventory of five common threats to and six common vulnerabilities of databases of large corporations where more than 1, devices require security management Whitman and Mattord, , aligning these threats with potential security solutions. As noted by Vizard , while companies are becoming adept at fighting data breaches, attacks are gaining in sophistication.

The emergence of big data has transformed how organizations realize the benefits of large datasets. This annotated bibliography examines how data governance frameworks may enable organizations to more effectively implement big data systems and maximize the rewards. Literature published from to is reviewed, key aspects of big data governance systems are identified. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to identify ways to better manage enterprise-wide data assets within institutions of higher education through data quality actions and data governance options.

The goal is to present selected data governance practices within the private business sector for consideration by individuals in public higher education who promote and support data quality initiatives. Topics include data quality barriers, data quality models, data quality management practices, and data quality drivers.

Regulatory requirements and data breaches are both on the rise and beg for increased data security, while ever-growing expectations within higher education to be more efficient and help students succeed demands data be more accessible to answer endless business questions. It is now more essential than ever that higher education institutions determine how to balance data security with accessibility—two major aspects addressed by data governance.

This literature review identifies tools and techniques that can help leadership within higher education institutions balance data security with the high levels of accessibility necessary to provide value to the organization and answer key business questions in a timely manner. Data warehousing has generated interest among information technology professionals and business executives because of its potential to turn data into information.

The prototype substantiates the correlation between the quality of source data and extracted information and reinforces the need for an iterative, incremental approach to ensure the data warehouse meets expectations. This study explicates data collection and reporting steps when designing a data warehouse for public education. Literature published from to in education-related periodicals concerning data warehouse design and implementation is analyzed.

The outcome is a data warehouse development guide that includes practical examples from the field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of data warehouses for decision support in K school districts. The study was conducted through a review of literature from the ERIC database from through on information technology in school districts, particularly where site-based management is in place.

The result of this study is a list of considerations to help school districts decide whether to implement data warehouse technology. This study discriminates among existing definitions of antipatterns, one subset of object-oriented pattern languages. Emphasis is placed on the relationship to software development project management processes. A review and content analysis of selected literature published since January identifies four conceptualizations of antipattern definitions, including 1 generative, 2 nongenerative, 3 metaphoric, and 4 pictorial.

The definitions of antipatterns were coded for these conceptualizations and recommendations were made concerning the advantages and disadvantages of each. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that impact the design of a knowledge management system that supports corporate intellectual property.

Such systems enhance corporate productivity and innovation. A literature review — and content analysis result in a roadmap for use by corporate decision makers, outlining a comprehensive set of factors addressing: Website trustworthiness is recognized as one of the primary factors driving consumer intentions to buy products online.

Many aspects of website design, information layout, and consumer reviews impact how customers perceive trustworthiness of an online retailer. Online analytical processing OLAP is a class of database query and reporting tools, delivering multi-dimensional views of data to users. This project investigates OLAP as a productive and strategic information technology for sales analysis.

Two types of systems used for business information analysis, a desktop OLAP system and a transaction processing system, are compared to explore OLAP's potential as a decision support tool. Additionally, a review of desktop OLAP by sales and marketing management provides input on the information requirements of management and the ability of OLAP to meet these requirements.

Conclusions address the role of desktop OLAP as a complementary technology in business information analysis. Digital Asset Management Strategy: Companies are looking for ways to manage their digital assets, both to contain costs and to enable cross-media publishing, which utilizes the same assets for all media. This study examined ideas found in literature published from through by professionals involved in electronic or print publishing.

Results are presented as annotated concept maps Trochim, , to be used by marketing communications professionals to assist them in planning a digital asset management strategy. In order to add more customers, analog cellular companies need to increase the capacity on their networks.

This study examines two digital technology solutions that can provide capacity gains: A literature review was conducted on collected data from telecommunication literature published between and Results are presented as a list of definitions and features for radio frequency and system engineers concerned with increasing capacity on their analog network.

This annotated bibliography describes data preservation practices used by organizations to ensure long-term digital content accessibility. It is intended for information professionals working in data management roles.

Selected literature is published between and Practices designed to ensure data accessibility for as long as needed include: Digital Divide in K-8 Education: Lynch defines the Digital Divide as "the gap between those who have access to and can effectively use information technologies and those who cannot" Lynch, p. This paper examines a primary factor, socio-economic status Chen and Wellman, , along with Internet access Birdsall, and teacher technological skills Castells, in K-8 education.

Literature published between and is analyzed to suggest ways to successfully mitigate the Digital Divide in the classroom. This exploratory study correlates the price a VOD consumer is willing to pay to view a movie and the length of time the movie has been in release. Data gathered by telephone survey is analyzed using statistical methods to conclude that price is weakly associated with distribution window in a negative correlation.

Further research is warranted to confirm price point, as well as a multivariate study to correlate additional factors of convenience, variety, and popularity. When disasters interrupt services provided by vital information technology IT systems, many businesses never recover Decker, This review of literature published between and identifies key stages for consideration when performing IT disaster recovery DR planning to ensure business viability if disasters occur.

Planning stages, presented as a guide for IT professionals, include project initiation, conducting a business impact analysis, developing a DR plan, testing a DR plan, and maintaining a DR plan. In Oregon, public schools maintain permanent student records on paper. Document imaging technology can change this by migrating them to a computerized system that provides several benefits.

A review and content analysis of selected literature published between March and May identifies the technical criteria for each of the five components of an effective document imaging system.

Criteria are presented as a guideline for selecting a system to be used in a K environment. Preparing for the Impact on the Automobile Insurance Industry The purpose of this study is to investigate the problem of uncertain legal liability, and the related problem of declining profits, for automobile insurers pertaining to driverless cars.

Existing electronic design and analysis EDA design tools employ static part selection technologies as a means of acquiring parts from an EDA component library.

This study identifies the problems associated with static part selection, and promotes a dynamic approach. Executive education providers rely on the Internet to attract students. This study identifies best practices for use by these providers in the design of e-commerce websites to attract registrations for open enrollment programs. Selected literature — was analyzed to identify website communication elements and design best practices.

E-commerce communication elements and best practices are aligned with Sharp's six positive response action categories, supplemented with two emergent categories: In trying to create organizational culture change, many organizations rely on surveys of organization members to determine the degree to which the change is progressing. A review of selected literature identifies criteria by which an organization can evaluate the validity of an organizational survey designed to measure culture change.

The use of these criteria is then demonstrated in a pilot test on a survey developed at the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. This study compares the effectiveness and efficiency of computer assisted collaboration to face-to-face collaboration in small groups through the use of four research studies conducted during the past four years.

Face-to-face collaboration is more efficient than computer assisted collaboration; however, computer assisted collaborative results are equal to face-to-face collaborative results. The type of task impacts the efficiency and effectiveness. This study raises further questions about why there are differences between the two methods of collaboration. In an era of increased accountability and shrinking resources for primary and secondary educational institutions, recent eLearning technologies could play a significant role in reaching goals of the No Child Left Behind Act.

This paper presents a review of selected literature published between and , explores the most commonly used eLearning technologies, examines potential impacts on assessment, and reveals possible benefits of introducing them in blended K environments to present curriculum content.

Electronic Distribution of Computer Software The purpose of this project is to discuss issues regarding the electronic distribution of computer software from the manufacturer to the customer. Issues and costs of electronic software distribution ESD are reviewed from both the manufacturer and the customer perspective.

In order to provide interoperability between healthcare organizations, healthcare IT must provide tools to exchange and coordinate patient information among electronic health record EHR systems. The report identifies best practices in designing the tools to bridge the EHR interoperability gaps. Electronic Mail Policy and Management E-mail changes the way we communicate. Employees spend increasing amounts of time sorting, reading, forwarding, storing, replying, and deleting electronic mail messages.

As more organizations incorporate e-mail, information system IS managers are increasingly aware of issues involved in adequately managing e-mail systems. Issues range from the legal complexities of e-mail ownership to the economic impact of e-mail storage and retention. Based on a survey of 20 e-mail administrators, this research explores current management practices and illustrates the need for e-mail policy development.

A draft e-mail policy incorporating acceptable practice guidelines is included. Modern knowledge workers especially managers are faced with an ever-increasing volume of information in the form of e-mail, yet e-mail management advice often fails to reduce the feeling of overload. This annotated bibliography presents selected literature published from to on e-mail overload to identify techniques for combating the problem.

Enterprise-wide techniques identified include training on e-mail client features to filter and sort, use of assistants, and setting organizational policies about reading and responding. E-mail volume continues to grow and many employees are unable to manage it Kubicek, Employees can learn e-mail management skills, but most organizations do not offer e-mail training Kubicek, This conceptual analysis study reviewed documents published between and to determine key problems and solutions.

Results of the study can be used to inform the design of a customized e-mail skills training program that in turn, can reduce stress and increase productivity. In the last decade, electronic mail e-mail has grown dramatically, as the primary tool for business communications.

A selective review of the literature published from through mid provides an overview of the complicated issues surrounding e-mail and employee privacy rights. Emergency Notification Systems ENS are in wide use in higher education, including community colleges. Literature published between and is examined regarding the use of ENS in the community college setting in light of the distinct and broad-based community college mission and recent reductions in funding sources.

The analysis produces 11 recommendations to guide planning and implementation of ENS in an open community college environment, for use by community college technology and safety administrators. The Internet culture presents a paradigm shift for corporate communicators; organizational success is increasingly dependent on stakeholder activities online.

This study examines online corporate reputation management initiatives, through analysis of literature published since Three overarching principles emerge: Improving User Adoption, Identifying This study seeks to identify pedagogical best practices and instructional techniques that will facilitate end-user learning and improve adoption of enterprise systems.

The study summarizes fifteen sources that explore how training and knowledge management represent challenges for Enterprise Systems implementations, why successful end-user training is important for system adoption, and what best practices and instructional techniques can be applied to more effectively train end-users during an Enterprise System implementation to support a successful project.

State funding in higher education remains lower than before the effects of the last recession, while education costs have risen.

Higher education uses fundraising to keep the quality of education from diminishing and control tuition. This annotated bibliography presents selected literature on identifying best practices for increasing alumni philanthropic participation through social media. Effective design, management, and operation of Engineering Change Order ECO systems in modern manufacturing operations are becoming critical components for competitive survival. In this project, engineering and documentation personnel from electronic manufacturing organizations were interviewed and the ECO systems at their companies were compared.

Factors to Consider in the Design of Anti-phishing Applications. Selected literature published between and is analyzed to provide designers and developers of anti-phishing applications with a set of fundamental user-centered design principles to consider prior to system design and technology solutions selection. The significance of anti-phishing user education is also examined. Waddington and Bloomberg believe that organizational characteristics should help determine the choice of an enterprise architecture model.

This paper examines key existing models and aligns these with variations in organizational maturity level, including business process definition, system development life cycle, and enterprise data warehouse Phillips, Outcomes are provided for enterprise architects and systems analysts who seek to model both technical and business components to support strategic planning efforts Baker and Janiszewski, The purpose of this literature review is to identify ways that the application of enterprise architecture tools might enhance the initiation phase, also known as the enterprise analysis phase, of the requirements gathering process.

Selected literature is examined from three areas: IT project management, requirements gathering, and enterprise architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of using specific tools, including the Zachman Framework, are discussed in relation to business processes and the needs of the business analyst.

Enterprise Content Management ECM refers to technologies used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes Duhon, a. Through analysis of 25 sources published between and , this literature review provides an introduction to SharePoint and describes its role as a specific selected ECM in order to assist information managers in the implementation of ECM.

Enterprise resource planning ERP systems are often utilized to provide key decision makers with accessible data and information. However, the implementation of ERP systems frequently proves to be costly, resource intensive, and frequently involves infrastructure disasters for small startup organizations struggling to stay in business. This annotated bibliography presents literature to explore common best practices for entrepreneurs and investors involved in a growing startup organization for implementing key ERP systems and modules to increase the probability of startup success.

The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to address the key criteria for consideration at each stage when a identifying ERP system options, and b evaluating these options for the selection of an ERP system that best meets the needs for small and medium sized enterprises. Enterprise resource planning software integrates the administration of all parts of a business into one system that provides process efficiencies and real-time visibility of business activities.

ERP projects are complex and require a review of critical success factors before implementation. Determining the key critical success factors and their application is critical for all project stakeholders.

This study focuses on these elements and provides relevant information for project managers, project teams, steering committees, and project sponsors. The weight of evidence against synthetic organic chemicals is sufficient to establish more stringent safeguards against their use.

This research employed a weight of evidence method. Epidemiological data, laboratory studies, and compiled environmental research was reviewed using a text analysis method against the dimensions of time, cause and effect, consistency of association, collaborating research, and coherence of the association.

The research results suggest modification of current environmental regulatory programs is indicated. Fact-Finding with Digital Libraries, Faster This research covers the usability testing of a prototype digital library.

The library holds technical manuals for scientific instruments. Findings show test subjects can locate desired documents faster with this digital library than a corresponding paper library. However, at this point in time, the same subjects can locate desired information faster in a paper document than a digital one. Most importantly, subjects reported they preferred using the online library of technical documents over the traditional paper library. This paper identifies factors that lead to the low level of wireless web use in the US.

Particular attention is paid to use of the wireless web in an e-commerce context, including m-commerce Charnoff, Selected literature published between and is subjected to concept analysis Carney, Results indicate there are thirteen distinct factors that hinder wireless web adoption in the US.

Factors fall into these three general categories: The engagement of faculty in development, course design, and peer review is central to quality online instruction. Thirty refereed case studies of standards-driven online course development in higher education since are annotated and analyzed for common principles, procedures, or recommended practices.

Discussion explores strategic planning for faculty and online administrators, including four phases of implementation, faculty support needs, barriers to engagement, and instructional and technology characteristics faculty must weigh carefully in specific pedagogical designs. Web-based geographic information systems GIS software development has grown since its inception in , enabled by the Internet and extending traditional desktop GIS applications.

This study evaluates four selected current web-based GIS software products along three key attributes and a defined set of criteria. Results are presented in a summary table and brief discussion. The evaluation is designed to assist GIS managers responsible for selecting web-based GIS for implementation in their organizations.

The development of a global information infrastructure may create electronic commerce opportunities in the United States for companies that seek to market their digital products or services to other countries. A selected review of literature published by global infrastructure organizations and individual researchers identifies components of infrastructure development that support a global exchange of digital information.

A combined perspective of these conditions provides guidance to U. This study presents literature on best practices with respect to governance in the cloud to promote an industry-wide secure cloud environment. Materials provide information on cloud computing and inherent risks associated with moving to the cloud. References pertain to the transfer of knowledge and learning to move to and use cloud-computing services.

The successful transfer of IT systems from a traditional IT environment to the cloud depends on a defined governance plan. This annotated bibliography examines literature published between and that addresses educational best practices for adult learners and how these practices can be combined with online and CMC technologies to influence engagement. It provides information to higher education administrators and instructors of adult learners about: Members of health maintenance organizations HMOs are demanding effective management of HMO finances, clinical quality, and service quality.

An understanding of the relationships between financial performance and quality performance may help health plan managers and consumers make better health care decisions. Selected literature supported the design of the study and analysis of the correlation. This type of plan is also called a consumer driven health plan. This annotated bibliography reviews popular features of selected mobile devices concerning mobile tasks, mobile technologies, and mobile context in order to examine the impact of user expectations on desktop computing software development.

Developers should consider communications, customization, and portability, with the goal to create a unified experience across interfaces. This paper examines Internet access as a factor to the limited numbers of qualified minorities, African Americans and Hispanic Americans, eligible for employment in corporations throughout the United States Bennett, Selected literature published between to is analyzed to examine access and success rates in schools.

Content analysis results in textual and graphical displays designed for diversity coordinators, working in corporations, who want to incorporate a diverse pool of employees in the workplace. This review examines how interorganizational systems IOS are used to provide a competitive advantage to both individual firms and the supply chain as an aggregate. Selected literature published between and is analyzed to provide IT managers an understanding of how IOSs are being used in support of competitive advantage.

The purpose of this study is to identify a set of selected modifications that can be made in relation to both technology and business in a mid-sized service organization, as a way to mitigate the size of an organization's carbon footprint.

Literature published from to is examined to identify carbon footprint reduction activities and related practices that are deemed socially responsible that, when implemented, can strengthen the triple bottom line sustainability business model. This annotated bibliography provides a source of scholarly references that highlight hybrid cloud solutions developed within the past decade to reflect the most recent changes in technology.

Current challenges in designing hybrid cloud solutions are to optimize the data center and avoid orchestration gaps. The target audience members for the study are marketing groups within the enterprise who market hybrid cloud solutions.

This project explores the problem of building a hypertext interface to an existing relational database. It includes a review of methodologies and tools, designing a conceptual model, constructing a prototype, and consideration of future directions. Hypertext in Web Pages: When corporate website style guides do not address usability issues, web managers and designers risk losing potential customers because of inadequate website design.

Web navigation and hypertext design are particularly important usability issues to be addressed. A review of five selected usability studies published between to reveals nine issues related to the usage and development of hypertext. The right to privacy guaranteed under the Fourth Amendment is being impacted by the use of electronic databases to market products and services. Results are presented as a list of issues concerning the right to privacy for consideration by users and managers of electronic databases.

Business Process Re-engineering has been touted as a strategy that can result in large scale gains in efficiency and productivity. This study examines the implementation of a cross-functional work team in order to compare the actual experience with current work team literature, and to examine the question: Do cross-functional work teams outperform more traditional work groups? Challenges and Best Practices. Information Technology IT projects have a reputation of not delivering business requirements.

Historical challenges like meeting cost, quality, and timeline targets remain despite the extensive experience most organizations have managing projects of all sizes. The profession continues to have high profile failures that make headlines, such as the recent healthcare. This research provides literary sources on agile methodology that can be used to help improve project processes and outcomes.

This study addresses the problem of implementing and integrating earned value methodologies on Agile projects. The intended audience is program and technical managers and team members on projects that lead functional groups. In a broader sense, the audience is key project stakeholders. This study is significant because Agile has rapidly emerged, yet traditional earned value methods are still in place in many industries and organizations.

This study addresses the compatibility between the two methods. Implementing network access controls NAC requires an awareness of various factors pertaining to information authentication, security, and access.

Selected literature published between and is examined, based on three factors for consideration: The outcome presents guidelines for small and medium sized businesses in the areas of governance, stratagem, and budgetary impacts. Selected annotated references are provided to emphasize best practices and security framework models currently in use. This annotated bibliography addresses implementation of Smartboards in the classroom, how the Smartboard affects faculty pedagogy and how change management can ease the implementation of this educational technology in a higher education institution.

Radio Frequency Identification RFID has the potential to enhance tracking and identification activities across business processes Finkenzeller, This study examines the potential for improved asset visibility in three RFID technologies: Outcomes, presented in summary tables, highlight factors that influence choices information managers must make to incorporate these technologies in medium to large organizations, with emphasis on pros, cons, and costs.

The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to discuss ways in which an enterprise content management system in general, and findability in particular, may help knowledge workers be more efficient and effective in the execution of their duties. The corporate data warehouse provides strategic information to support decision-making Kimball, et al.

High quality data may be the most important factor for data warehouse success Loshin, This study examines three data management techniques that improve data quality: Content analysis of 14 references, published between and , results in lists of themes, synonyms, and definitions for each technique, designed for data warehouse analysts and developers.

This annotated bibliography examines literature published between and as they address collaborative technologies and how these technologies may be combined with formal learning approaches to maximize learning outcomes. It provides information to corporate trainers and instructors of adult professionals about: The Case in Oregon, Examining the Role of This annotated bibliography describes information and communication technologies in use around the world that can be applied to the growing food insecurity problems in Oregon.

Articles written since are reviewed to identify technologies that can be implemented to positively affect food security and to support policy recommendations. Tools include information and knowledge networks, accessible databases, community food assessments, and food traceability systems.

An Organizational Culture Perspective This study examines change implementations and opportunities for information and technology managers to influence organizational culture as part of the change process.

Four cultural traits offered by Denison and Mishra involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission are aligned with four change concepts IT change implementation, strategic change management, impact of change, and organizational learning. Selected literature — is analyzed to produce a reference for use by managers when planning and implementing technological changes. Findability, a vital attribute of information architecture IA was analyzed in two museum websites: A literature review from to the present generated an a priori list of findability elements including sitemaps, navigation, and other browsing and searching aides.

Conclusions state that the wayfinding experience is vital to the success of virtual museums. Outcomes include a list of specific ways to increase findability. Information Management on the Internet: Locating relevant electronic information on the web has been complicated by the rapid growth of online resources. Providing better interfaces to locate relevant documents has become more important than returning the greatest number of matches.

A review of selected literature from January through March identifies changes made by eight companies to improve query results. Conclusions are presented as recommendations and instructions to improve search engine selection, query construction, and results refinement.

Selected literature published between and is analyzed to define key dimensions of information quality for consideration at the pre-processing stage, before data reach the warehouse, to ensure maximum quality assurance.

The goal is to provide a framework to prioritize dimensions that align with business intelligence goals and objectives. This study provides identification of information used in the design, manufacture and potential outsourcing of printed wiring board PWB assemblies. A literature review presents the analysis of over selected references and publications from — A prototype questionnaire was designed for use by professionals working in Original Equipment Manufacturer OEM and Electronic Manufacturing Service EMS companies who may need to outsource this work and identify only the specific manufacturing information required for success.

Fusion of Professional and Personal Lives This annotated bibliography explores the core values organizations must possess in order to implement information security cultures that incorporate information security awareness and develop information security behaviors while maximizing productivity and reducing the number of security incidents caused by end users. The bibliography is based on literature published from to Conclusions drawn from the literature describe the different corporate culture frameworks and training methodologies needed to cultivate an information security culture.

Not only is information security strategy crucial to protect information systems, but it is central to organization survival. Harris believes security strategy should be customized because each organization is unique.

Literature published from to examines information systems in the context of information security. Conclusions provide discussion of six key security policy components selected from ISO , spanning definitions, objectives, management goals, controls, risk assessment, policies and standards, compliance requirements, and supporting references.

An information security metrics program can provide organizations with a resource to manage, monitor, control, or improve aspects of an information security program. A set of five key components necessary to include when developing a plan for an information security metrics program is presented.

Components are framed in relation to criteria from Chew, et al. Healthcare organizations must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of and develop information security policies that ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility of sensitive information; however, guidelines are vague.

This bibliography identifies policies and describes information security governance strategies designed to ensure compliance. Organizations must create a leadership committee to a assess current policies, b oversee policy enforcement, c note the effects of internal and external influences, and d maintain currency. This literature review examines information sharing systems for use in a project-oriented non-profit organization to expand the organizational knowledge base, resulting in the potential to deconstruct project silos.

Companies that work in a fast-paced project environment run the risk of creating project silos Curran, , which segregate employees by task and prevent them from understanding the larger scope of the project Mohrman, Systems examined include group decision support strategies, databases, and computer based technologies. Information Systems, Management of Data Quality in The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to address how to improve management of data quality within information systems in relation to four categories: This study provides boards of directors of publicly traded companies with checklists for assessing the practice and structure of their boards in the area of IT governance.

IT governance is an integral part of overall enterprise governance ITGA, and as such, is the responsibility of boards and executive managers. This annotated bibliography examines how law enforcement agencies are deploying technology solutions to expand and sustain community oriented policing.

Articles published between and are reviewed to identify technologies that can be implemented to positively affect the ability to build community partnerships and solve community problems. Topics include law enforcement staffing trends, community oriented policing practices, and law enforcement technology solutions.

The most effective solutions include social media, crime analytic software, and information sharing. Digital technology has transformed traditional copiers and printers into a new class of office products referred to as Multi-Function Devices MFDs which combine the features of copiers, printers and facsimile machines into a single, networked device. An exploratory review and content analysis of selected literature published between and , along with an analytical review of a survey of IT professionals, identifies common approaches and strategies to prepare for implementation of this new technology.

This annotated bibliography examines information visualization concepts and techniques supporting exploration, discovery, and crystallization of new knowledge based on visual recognition of hidden patterns and structures in big data Offenhuber, , and effectiveness evaluation methodologies within specific domains. Literature published between — suggests considerations for software development teams tasked with creating information visualization solutions.

Results include a taxonomy of terms and concepts, a concept map, and over a dozen images demonstrating visualization techniques. This paper discusses the potential for exploitation of installed information systems in automated manufacturing environments. The paper presents and demonstrates a model to help business managers and technology users exploit existing information systems.

Integrating Selected Web 2. This annotated bibliography explores the unique learning style of the millennial generation and examines how web 2.

Conclusions describe examples of using video sharing websites and social networking technologies in the classroom as well as some of the challenges that an educator might face when incorporating these tools into the curriculum. The human-computer interface must include speech to make computers more usable by the general population.

Only specialized applications could use speech in the past. Advances in technology have made it possible to integrate speech into generalized applications. Currently, only a few researchers and experts are building applications that incorporate speech.

This research focuses on design guidelines for developers to use when building speech interfaces. A Case Study This project is a case study of a multi-divisional corporation's situation as it relates to systems planning. The study examined the integration of systems planning with overall corporate plans and goals. Risk Identification and Protection in the Global Market Organizations that conduct business in the global market expose themselves to potential information risk, including intellectual property IP theft, exposure, and breach of laws and regulations Corbin, Key elements of this study examine IP risk management and identification practices, IP protection, and the value of building a security awareness IP culture.

A Definition and Selected Examples Intelligent tutoring systems are altering conventional approaches to tutoring and student learning models. This annotated bibliography presents literature published from to on intelligent tutoring systems ITS , their current definition and selected examples. Special attention is given to the theoretical principles of intelligent tutoring systems, technology-based ITS products, and examples of ITS tools that have demonstrated success in a virtual school environment.

Components of an ITS are also examined and identified. The lack of adequate communication and coordination with utility companies are measurable contributors to cost overruns on highway construction projects U.

Selected literature published between and is analyzed. The analysis is framed by Bruck's methods of online collaboration. This study examines the investigative strategies law enforcement professionals are implementing to meet the challenges of Internet-based hate, bias, and terror crimes. Internet-based strategies are compared to conventional hate, bias, and terror investigative strategies already in use by law enforcement. The result is the design of a comprehensive guide for law enforcement personnel to use when investigating such crimes, including specific key questions to ask, decisions to make, and procedures for seizure of electronic evidence.

This literature review of public sector resistance to innovation and Intranet implementations describes potential actions managers can take to ensure Intranets are fully adopted in a government organization.

HOW TO WRITE A CAPSTONE PROJECT PAPER?

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In a capstone paper, the writer researches a specific subject in detail, and composes a comprehensive paper about it. Capstone papers are intensive and require a lot of attention and time. Therefore, it’s . This is a general guide intended to inform a graduate student's progress through a thesis or capstone project at Utica College. The steps, however, may vary slightly depending on the student's academic program and committee chair. To complete a thesis/capstone project, a student typically follows a series of steps through two phases.

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1. Submitting a sufficiently focused and relevant Capstone Project proposal 2. Completing required IRB Training 3. Submitting and receiving approval for an IRB Application 4. Implementing and evaluating the approved Capstone Project 5. Writing a project paper that meets the requirements described below 6. A capstone project is a multifaceted assignment that serves as a culminating academic experience for students, typically at the end of high school.