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In-Text Citation and Notes

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Citing Sources in the Text of your Paper

In-Text Citations: The Basics
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Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation. MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.

If two quotations from different sources are used in the same sentence, the parenthetical reference associated with a particular quote should be placed as close to the quotation as possible without interrupting the flow of the sentence.

If a paragraph includes several quotations from a single source, a single parenthetical reference may be placed at the end of the paragraph. Page numbers should be included for each quotation organized by placement in the paragraph. In the following example, the first quotation from Smith appeared on page 43 of the text. The second quotation used in the paragraph came from page If the author is included more than once on the Works Cited page, the following form should be used.

Note that the format of the title on the Works Cited sheet should be mirrored in the parenthetical reference i. If there is no author, a title fragment should be used to make a connection between the use of the source and the citation for the source on the Works Cited page. To cite the use of a source in the text of an essay, APA advocates two methods: Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence.

The following is the general form for parenthetical citations in APA style:. Author Last Name Year of Publication has argued this point. Smith has argued this point. Page numbers are not required in APA in-text citation. However, it is highly suggested that these be included. To include references to a specific part of the text, add the page number or chapter number after the year. When a work has two authors, both names should be cited every time the reference is required.

If a text has been authored by more than five individuals, the full listing of authors is not required in the first reference or any subsequent in-text references. First mention of the reference: Johnson, Smith, and Brown agree that… Subsequent mention: If an organization has a recognizable abbreviation, this may be used in subsequent references. American Medical Association, Subsequent mention: Title fragments should be formatted using the same punctuation as titles on the References page.

Examples of parenthetical attribution: For other considerations related to in-text referencing using the APA format, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 5th ed.

These are called endnotes. Although footnotes or notes at the bottom of the page are sometimes required, endnotes have become the predominant form of notes citations. When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must also include a bibliography at the end of the essay. The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different format.

As the formats for notes are contingent on the format of the source for which the note is written, examples of note formats are included with the bibliographic examples available through the Citing Sources link. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style , 16th ed. Documentation 2, also called the Author-Date style, requires the use of parenthetical references in the text of the essay as well as a list of References.

Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Page numbers should be included whenever possible.

The following examples illustrate parenthetical reference formats for works with more than one author. When organizations or corporate authors are the author of a text, the name of the organization may be shortened to its most basic title. Abbreviations for the organization are not encouraged. In the Chicago style, daily newspapers are rarely included in a list of References.

Books, films, television series and other large works are italicized. If a work has multiple authors, list them in the same order they are given in the source. Put only the first author in last name, first name order. Examples of containers include: A website hosting an article follow the article title in quotation marks with the brief web address in italics: A poem in a poetry collection list the title of the collection in italics after the title of the poem in quotation marks: A television series list the television series in italics after the episode title in quotation marks: List other contributors, if applicable.

Some works may have contributors other than the primary author. For instance, a book may have a translator, editor or illustrator. If this applies to your work, give the other contributors after any details about containers.

Translated by Constance Garnett. Provide the edition, version, volume, and number information, if present. For example, an article in a journal will typically belong to a certain volume number, some books will be published in different edition numbers first, second, third, etc. If any of this information applies to your source, list it next. Identify the publisher and date. For traditional print sources, the publisher is the organization that issues the text.

Follow this information with the date of publication. National Geographic Society, An MLA works cited entry should list information about where the information was found.

For a source like a chapter in a book or a journal article, you could provide page numbers. If you are citing an artwork, list the museum it is located in. If you are citing a website, include the URL. If you are a student, your teacher may or may not ask for these. Indicate whether the source has a second container. Some sources are nested within larger containers, particularly when it comes to ones accessed electronically.

For instance, you might cite an article in a journal that is hosted on JSTOR, a television series episode you watched via Netflix, or see a music video that is hosted on YouTube.

If this applies to your source, include the information at the end of the entry. Format your works cited page. Double space and use hanging indentation to make the list easier to read. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.

Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Tips Always check with your teacher, publisher, scholarly organization, or other authority about which precise details they would like included in citations, and to see if they have any special guidelines you should follow. The Modern Language Association of America, Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read , times. Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better.

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In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper. The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.).

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The MLA Handbook grew out of the initial MLA Style Sheet of (revised in ), a page "more or less official" standard. The first five editions, published between and were titled the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and wegostyle.mlt: Style guide.

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Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

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If the source you’re attempting to cite does not have an author’s name listed, the in-text citation MLA or MLA parenthetical citation should display the title. If the title is rather long, it is acceptable to shorten it in the body of your assignment. How to quote a source Additional resources These materials will help you avoid plagiarism by teaching you how to properly integrate information from published sources into your own writing.