If the paper was published, you'll follow the general rules for citing an article in Chicago style. Include any additional information necessary to locate the paper. If you accessed the paper online, you should add a direct URL so your readers can go directly to the paper as you found it. If the paper has a database number assigned to it, that can also help readers locate the paper more easily.
Follow your instructor's guidance regarding in-text citations. Chicago and Turabian a simplified version of Chicago style style research papers may use either footnotes or parenthetical citations to cite references in the body of your paper. For parenthetical citations, Chicago uses the Author-Date format. Start with the authors of the paper.
Invert the names of the authors so that you list their last names first, followed by their first names. Separate multiple authors with commas. Provide the title of the research paper. In MLA, enclose the title and subtitle in quotation marks. Capitalize most words, but not short articles or conjunctions unless they are the first word of the title or subtitle.
Identify the paper's location. MLA operates on the concept of containers. Your paper is part of a larger whole, which may be part of an even larger whole. In your citation, list the smallest container first, followed by the larger, all the way up to the largest. Your citation might be: University of Alaska Library Archives.
Accessed December 24, Use parenthetical references in the body of your work. After you mention something in your paper that requires you to cite the research paper, place the names of the authors in parentheses along with the page number where the information appears. An AMA citation begins with the names of the authors or editors of the paper.
Use no punctuation apart from a comma between names. If there are more than 6 authors, list the first 3 followed by the abbreviation "et al. Provide the title in sentence case. In sentence case, you only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns included in the title of the article.
If there is a subtitle, include it after a colon with an initial capital at the beginning of the subtitle. Include journal information if the paper was published. A research paper that was published in an academic journal should be treated like any other journal article. Include the abbreviated title of the journal in italics, followed by the year of publication, issue number, and pages where the paper appears.
Provide location information if the paper hasn't been published. If the paper was presented at a conference or symposium, include information about the conference where it was presented. If you found it online, provide a direct link and the date you accessed it. Use superscript numbers in the body of your paper. For in-text citations, include a superscript number after the information for which you need a citation. You'll build your bibliography as you write your paper, with your citations listed in the order they are noted in your text.
Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary To cite a paper APA style, start with the author's last name and first initial, and the year of publication.
Did this summary help you? Most of your introduction , and much of your discussion , involve building upon the research of others, placing your research project in the context of previous findings in the field. It is perfectly acceptable to quote the work of others and, in fact, it is essential that you do so. Occasionally, you will use direct quotes from another source, but most of the time you will be paraphrasing the work. You will need to create a bibliography or reference list of all of the sources that you use, but you will also need to indicate within the text where your information came from.
Referencing is an essential part of writing any research paper , so err on the side of caution. Common knowledge does not need to be referenced, and you can assume that any reader is fairly knowledgeable about the field. For example, a psychologist will be aware of pavlovian conditioning , so you do not need to reference that if it from your own head. A biochemist will be aware of how ethanol is made. There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style.
Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent. If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor. For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing. Sargeant, at the end of the sentence. This will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves.
There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure. If the author has written more than one paper in the same year, then you can use an alphabetical appendix:.
Some departments prefer it if you also use page numbers, if possible. The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization.
In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation. The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography. The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is reliable. For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al. If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway.
Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that.
If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system. Sorgheloos, , as cited in Sargeant, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research. A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors BCE use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography:.
Although most word processors provide an automatic system of doing this, the added complexity, and the way that it makes the paper unwieldy for the reader, means that it is falling out of fashion.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. Year, e.g., (Anon. ) (Anon. is the abbreviation for anonymous). See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: (Driblick , in Oobleck ).
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
In any research paper, you will have used information from other sources, and it is essential to use in text citations to accredit other researchers. Depending on the subject of your paper, you will need to adhere to specific format guidelines. For example, English-based papers generally use the MLA format, while .
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E.g., (Jones, ), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Dec 21, · How to Cite a Research Paper. When writing a paper for a research project, you may need to cite a research paper you used as a reference. The basic information included in your citation will be the same across all styles. However, the %(1).