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How to Write References on Essays

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❶In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text.

Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay

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Why reference?

Titles of books should preserve the published capitalization. Capitalize the city of publication, and use correct state abbreviations for states. Also capitalize the name of the publisher and end the reference with a period.

The title of larger works, whether a book, journal, website, or magazine, is in italics or underlined if handwriting , as is the issue number that appears right after the title. Titles for shorter works like articles and chapters should not have any indicative punctuation in an APA entry. CMOS or Chicago utilizes two different of reference styles: Notes and Bibliography, and Author Date.

For Notes and Bibliography, you will use a superscript at the instance of each quote in the text with a corresponding footnote at the end of the page. All footnotes are compiled into endnotes at the end of the work, on the bibliography page. The full version of each parenthetical citation is listed alphabetically on the references page. Simon Simon is the author last name, and is the year. You will need a citation directly after every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't think of yourself.

As you do research for your essay, take note of all bibliographic information that you see. If using a book, write down all pertinent information found on the copyright page, including the name of the publisher and the city and year of publication. Publication date is often at the bottom of webpages. Use Notes and Bibliography if instructed.

The Notes and Bibliography NB method is preferred by scholars in the humanities literature, history, arts. NB is conducive to recording a wide range of sources in detail, which the Author Date system doesn't allow for. Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and one blank line between entries. Notes and Bibliography style uses footnotes for page endings and endnotes for chapter endings. The bibliography page will be an alphabetized list of all sources in hanging indent.

An example format for a book is as follows: An example format for a chapter in a print scholarly journal is as follows: Author last name, first name. For an online scholarly journal article, tack on the following at the end: An example format for a website is as follows: When there is no known author, the entry should begin with the title of the document, whether it's a webpage, chapter, article, and so on.

When there are multiple authors, the first listed author appears last name, first name, so that the citation is alphabetized by this author's last name. Subsequent authors are listed by first name, like this: Always end a citation with a period. Use Author Date if instructed.

The Author Date style is preferred by those in the sciences, i. Author Date is a more concise style of documentation. Leave 2 blank lines between this title and the first entry, and 1 blank line between entries.

Author Date style bibliographies should be organized alphabetically by last name or by title if no author in hanging indent.

Should I categorize my references into books, websites, journals etc. No, that is not necessary. All of your sources should be listed in alphabetical order, using the authors' last name. If there is no author or the author's name is missing, the title of the work will come first in the citation and you can use the title to organize the source into the list.

This is the case for all of the "Works Cited" pages for the academic writing styles referred to in this article. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0. You can search on Google for "reference paper examples. How do I reference many dates in an essay? Answer this question Flag as I need an example of a descriptive essay. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other.

Quick Summary To reference an essay using MLA style, add a citation after any information you found through a source, like facts or quotes. Did this summary help you? Tips If you are assigned to write a paper or other written document in one of these styles, you need to purchase the style manual.

It will contain nearly every instance not only of source citation, but paper formatting as well as grammar and punctuation that is unique to that style. You don't have to write each bibliography or reference entry on your own. You can download citation management software like Endnote [9] purchase required on this one , Zotero [10] it's free , or use websites like http: Select the name of your style manual before you begin creating citations.

Copy and paste the citation into your bibliography or references list. Warnings This article only lists how to cite research for each style manual. Each style has its own instructions for setting up the format of the essay, including heading, spacing, margins, font, and so on. Essays In other languages: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read , times.

Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better. Or indirectly Slater and Jones In this citation, White is the primary source, and therefore the original; Black the secondary may have taken White's ideas forward and altered the meaning slightly, if not directly quoted. Therefore it would be prudent to try and access White's work and read the original. When citing the reference in the reference list, cite only the work that you have read; i.

Where you are reproducing data from a diagram or table, or copying the entire table or diagram, in your essay, a reference should be made to the source. A reference within the text of your essay to a Table taken from a book should include the author and page Smith , p.

Where the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, this is a second hand reference and needs to be cited thus United Nations cited in Smith , p.

Be particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of document you have found it in. Fuller details should be included in the reference list at the end of the essay. Are you struggling with an essay? You could have a complete, original fully referenced essay emailed to you from an academic qualified and experienced in your area of study, in as little as 3 hours. Find out more about our essay writing services or visit our simple order form and get the help you need now.

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Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay

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Reference Page. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author.

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Use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the same page as the information you cited, while endnotes should be written in a list on a separate page at the end of the essay, according to

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The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. Knapper, C.K. and Cropley, A. Lifelong Learning and Higher Education. Aug 29,  · In the Reference List, you will list multiple essays by the same author alphabetically by the first major word of the title. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on. Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're K.

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The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer. The incorporation of references in your essay will depend on the format that you will use. Though APA format is commonly followed in most reference essays, there are still a lot of ways on how you can include your sources in your writing.